Throughout its long-term history the Institute has always been acknowledged as a leading scientific centre playing significant role in the development of the national law science. The Institute created at the beginning of the Soviet epoch confidently has entered 21st century, feeling the demand and confirming with its scientific achievements. We are proud of our Institute and with gratitude we recollect everyone who has enclosed the creative power in its development. The Institute is opened for creative cooperation with all scientific institutions and educational centres of our country and foreign states.
Khabrieva Talia Y. Director of the Institute, Dr. of jurisprudence, professor, title "Honored Lawyer of the Russian Federation"
The Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation is the oldest centre of the Russian legal science.
Established more than 80 years ago, it entered the XXI century with confidence confirming its repute by new scientific achievements, great contribution into the national legislation improvement, being one of the recognized scientific schools educating legal scholars.
The Institute is always ready for mutually beneficial cooperation with all interested parties of this country and other states.
The Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Russian Federation Government was established in 1925. Originally its activities were governed by a number of people's commissariats of the RSFSR. The Institute had maintained its interdepartmental status for many years. In 1934, it was transferred under the supervision of the Supreme Court of the USSR, the Prosecutor's Office of the USSR, the People's Commissariat for Justice of the RSFSR, and in 1963, under the supervision of the Legal Commission of the Council of Ministers of the USSR. In 1988, the Institute passed under the supervision of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, and in 1991, the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation. The Government of the Russian Federation has been the Institute's founder since 1994.
Prominent Russian lawyers worked here: M. Agarkov, N. Alexandrov, E. Ametistov, B. Antimonov, S.Abramov, T. Aparova, E. Astrakhan, S. Bratus, A. Vengerov, A. Venediktov, V. Galkin, M. Gernet, A. Gertsenzon, I. Golyakov, I. Gringolts, D. Genkin, M. Grodzinsky, V. Dozortsev.M. Isaev,S. Karinskyl. Kazmin,S. Kechekyan, M. Kirichenko, I. Kuznetsov, L. Lunts, A. Mitskevitch, V. Nikitinsky, B. Nikiforov, I. Novitsky, I. Pan-kratov, A. Pergament, V. Perttsik, I. Petrov, A. Pigolkin, A. Pi-ontkovsky, G. Polyanskaya, V. Popova, V. Rakhmilovich, F. Reshet-nikov, I. Samoshchenko, A. Stavtseva, A. Trainin, B. Utevsky, E. Fleishits, S. Yushkov.
The Institute's name reflects two main directions of its activities. The first one is research on the main branches of the national legislation and their development tendencies. The second one is comparative law research on the legislation and law enforcement practice of foreign states.
The Institute's structure is determined subject to these directions. Currently it includes 17 scientific departments doing research on the national and foreign law; the Centre for Economic and Legal Issues of the National and Municipal Administration; scientific library; department of scientific information on legislation; postgraduate school; editorial office; some other scientific auxiliary departments.
In 2007, the Board of Trustees was formed in accordance with the new Articles of Association of the Institute approved by the Government of the Russian Federation. The Board of Trustees assists in enhancing the ties between the science and practice and extension of research directions. The Chairman of the Board is S. E. Naryshkin, Chief of Staff of the Government of the Russian Federation, Deputy Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation.
The Institute is a lawmaking scientific support centre.
In accordance with the regulations of the Government of the Russian Federation, the Institute is responsible for participation in preparation of lawmaking plans of the Government of the Russian Federation, development of federal draft laws, making scientific legal due diligence of federal law concepts and drafts, and other regulatory documents under consideration of the Government of the Russian Federation.
The Institute provides scientific legal support for activities of the Government of the Russian Federation and other superior bodies of public authorities. The number of addresses to the Institute has been growing from year to year. Thus, if in 2004, the Institute received more than 2,000 orders and requests, in 2005, it was more than 2,200 and in 2006, more than 2,700.
In 2006, the Institute prepared more than 800 conclusions on federal law drafts and more than 200 analytical materials by the order of the Government of the Russian Federation, at requests of the Presidential Executive Office, the Council of Federation, the State Duma, the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, and the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation.
The Institute's employees take an active part in the work of consulting and advisory bodies of the President, the Government, chambers of the Federal Assembly, the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation (the Presidential Commission for Improving Public Administration and Justice; the Presidential Council for Enhancement of Judicial System; the Lawmaking Commission of the Government of the Russian Federation, the Governmental Commission for Administrative Reform; the Governmental Commission for Enhancement of Interaction of Federal Executive Authorities and Executive Authorities of Subjects of the Russian Federation; scientific expert councils of the Chairman of the Council of Federation and the Chairman of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, the Scientific Council of the Security Council of the Russian Federation, etc.).
It should be noted that the Institute has made a great contribution into the preparation of the Constitution, the Civil Code, the Land Code, the Code of Administrative Offences, the Labour Code, the Arbitration Procedural Code, the Civil Procedural Code, and many other framework acts of the Russian Federation.
In 1994, by the order of the President of the Russian Federation the Institute developed the Russian Legislation Development Concepts, which contained the doctrinal forecasting of the development of all its branches. Later they were republished (1995, 1998, 2004), reflecting changes in public relations and laws. The concepts set a high lawmaking standard, which allows determining the foreseeable level and quality of the laws of the Russian Federation.
One of the Institute's practical tasks is monitoring of the federal laws and laws of subjects of the Russian Federation. Analytical and information reviews on legal regulation of public relations are made on its base.
A high level of lawmaking works of the Institute is in many ways ensured by an inextricable tie between theory and practice, which to a great extent is supported by the research done for public authorities of the Russian Federation (the State Duma, the Presidential Executive Office, ministries of education and science, of public health and social development, internal affairs, industry and power industry, information technologies and communication, agriculture, federal agencies for construction and housing and public services, education, science and innovations, culture and cinematography, anti-monopoly service, etc.). The Institute also does research at requests of subjects of the Russian Federation. The customers for the works by the Institute include such regions as Vologda Region, Nizhni Novgorod Region, Orel Region, Tver Region, Tyumen Region, Moscow, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area, etc. The Institute has given its conclusions to such large organizations as Russian Railways, the Diplomatic Corps Office of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, Roszagransobstvennost, Monetny Dvor, Vnesheconombank, First Czech-Russian Bank, VIP-Bank, Rosneft, Transneft, MTS, MGTS, Vimpelcom, Comstar, Rostelecom, Transtelecom, Russian Association of Motor Insurers, RK Garant, etc.
In its lawmaking activities, the Institute makes good use of the results of scientific research on the regulations of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Council of Europe, the European Union, other regional and international associations, and the laws of Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Great Britain, Hungary, Germany, Canada, Poland, Serbia, the USA, Ukraine, France, Czech Republic, Croatia and other states.
Since its establishment, the Institute has published more than 1,000 monographs and collections of scientific papers. About 150 books were published during the last 5 years (2002 - 2006). They took a worthy place in the legal science of Russia and some other states. Many of them are not only well-known to lawyers but also to a high readership.
First, the followingfundamental composite and author's works of the Institute's employees are concerned - Contract Law. In 5 Volumes (1999 - 2006), Law-Based Management (2007), Systematization of Legislation in the Russian Federation (2005), Government of the Russian Federation (2005), National and Cultural Autonomy in the Russian Federation (2003), Problems of Legal Regulation of Real Estate (2006), etc.
Many works of the Institute were innovative and opening some unexplored fields of law: Administrative Reform in Russia (2006), Social Legislation (2005), Citizen, Law and Public Authority (2005), Poetry of Law: Pages of Lawmaking from Ancient Times to Our Days (2003).
Commentaries to legislation and judicial practice are essential works of the Institute, which are prepared by well-known scholars and experts, including judges of supreme federal courts. These works include commentaries to the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Civil, Labour, Housing, Water and Land Codes, annually published Commentaries to Judicial Practice (since 1959) and Commentaries to Arbitration Practice (since 1974), which have become classics of the national legal science.
Manuals and study guides prepared within the walls of the Institute are very popular: Theory of State and Law under the editorship of A. S. Pigolkin (2007), Course of Lectures on the Civil Law of Russia under the editorship of O. N. Sadikov (2003), International Private Law under the editorship of N. I. Marysheva (2004), Parliamentary Law of Russia under the editorship of T. Ya. Khabrieva (2003), Constitutional Law of Russia under the editorship of A. E. Postnikov (2007), Land Law by A. S. Bogolyubov (2006), Transportation Law by V. A. Egiazarov (2007), Administrative Law and Procedure. Complete Course by Yu. A. Tikhomirov (2005), etc.
The Institute's comparative law research devoted to the up-to-date legal systems and main institutes of foreign law have become well-known: Main Institutes of Civil Law of Foreign States. Comparative Law Research (2000), Labour and Social Law of Foreign States: Main Institutes (2002), Family Law of the Russian Federation and Foreign States. Main Institutes (2004), Forms of Entrepreneurial Activities under the Laws of Foreign States (2005 r.), Foreign Antiterrorism Laws (2002).
For the first time in the national law, the Institute has published multivolume editions of constitutions of all European and American states with commentaries of well-known Russian and foreign scholars and experts. The Institute has been preparing the publication of a three-volume edition of constitutions of Asian states.
Since 1997, the Institute in cooperation with Norma Publishing House for Legal Literature has been publishing The Russian Law Journal, which is a successor of Scientific Notes and Works published by the Institute.
Its Editorial Board includes such famous public officials and scholars as S. S. Sobyanin (Chairman), V. D. Zorkin, A. A. Ivanov, O. E. Kutafin, V. M. Lebedev, O. V. Morozov, R. G. Nurgaliev, S. Yu. Orlova, N. P. Patrushev, A. S. Soko-lov, S. V. Stepashin, V. V. Ustinov, Yu. V. Chaika.
The journal on a monthly basis highlights the lawmaking process in Russia, law enforcement experience, publishes commentaries to new Russian laws, analytical articles of legal scholars, interviews with public officials and leaders.
Since 2005, the Institute with support of the Government of the Russian Federation has been publishing The Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law. The main goal of the Journal is to promote lawmaking and law-enforcement activities of public authorities and to assist participants of foreign economic activities. Alongside with analytical articles and reviews the Journal contains monitoring of changes in the laws of the European Union and leading world states. The Editorial Board of the Journal includes A. D. Zhukov (Chairman), L. I. Brycheva, A. A. Ivanov, S. G. Kekhlerov, S. E. Naryshkin, S. V. Stepashin, Yu. P. Trut-nev, T. Ya. Khabrieva, Yu. A. Chaika.
Following an old tradition of coordinating the work of legal scientific and educational institutions of the country related to enhancement of the legislation, the Institute holds large scientific forums on a regular basis. The following international scientific conferences held by the Institute attracted public attention: Russian Constitution and Legislation Development (2003); Role of Law in Ensuring National Interests (2005); Execution of Foreign Court Decisions (2006); Title to Natural Resources and Environmental Management Efficiency (2006); Problems of Improving the Laws of the Russian Federation on Public Health (2006); Legal Issues of Administrative Reform (2007); Laws on Education: Ensuring Private and Public Interests (2007).
Holding of annual conferences devoted to the memory of Professor S. N. Bratus, one of the founders of the national civil jurisprudence, has become a good tradition.
The Institute in the interests of further development of the national legal science has been paying much attention to formation of young scientists. The Council of Young Scholars has been created and actively functioning in the Institute. The International Practical School of Young Legal Scholars is held on an annual basis, in which young lawyers from well-known scientific and educational legal centres of Russia, other states of the CIS, far and near abroad take part. Sessions are held by prominent scholars and representatives of supreme public authorities from Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Uzbekistan and other foreign states.
The Institute has always united highly qualified legal scholars ready to transfer their knowledge and experience to young generations of lawyers. That is why many graduates of leading law schools of Russia, far and near abroad states seek to continue their education in our Institute's postgraduate school.
The Institute admits graduates for intramural and extramural postgraduate studies in accordance with the following specialties:
12.00.01 - Theory and History of Law and State; History of Legal Theories;
12.00.02 - Constitutional Law; Municipal Law;
12.00.03 - Civil Law; Entrepreneurial Law; Family Law; International Private Law;
12.00.05 - Labour Law; Social Security Law;
12.00.06 - Law of Natural Resources; Agricultural Law; Environmental Law;
12.00.09 - Criminal Procedure, Criminal Science and Legal Expertise; Operational Search Activities;
12.00.10 - International Law; European Law;
12.00.11 - Judicial Power; Procuracy Supervision; Organization of Law-Enforcement Activities; Advocacy;
12.00.14 - Administrative Law; Financial Law;Information Law;
12.00.15 - Civil Procedure; Arbitration Procedure.
The Institute has three dissertation councils entitled to hold defences of dissertations for degrees of candidate and doctor of law on the above specialties.
Since 1939, when the Institute was vested with the right to accept candidate's and doctoral dissertations for defence, more than 700 dissertations, including about 200 doctoral ones, have been successfully defended. Candidates for degrees were such well-known lawyers as S. N. Bratus, V. V. Vitryansky, G. A. Gadzhiev, V. A. Dozortsev, V. M. Zhuikov, P. V. Krasheninnikov, Ya. M. Magaziner, B. S. Nikiforov, A. S. Pigolkin, A. A. Piontkovsky, V. A. Rakhmilovich, O. N. Sadikov, A. A. Sobchak, S. S. Sobyanin, A. A. Tille, V. A. Tumanov, E. A. Flei-shits, M. D. Shargorodsky, etc.
Taking into account the scientific and pedagogic potential of the Institute, the Government of the Russian Federation by its decision has authorized the Institute to organize advance training for executive employees and other specialists. The Institute's employees due to their continuous participation in the lawmaking process are prepared for training of interested parties best of all. The Institute has traditionally been a leading centre for legal technique training, one of the most "vulnerable" places in the lawmaking activities.
The Institute has one of the largest scientific law libraries in Russia. The library stock includes more than 100 thousand pre-revolutionary, Soviet and up-to-date editions on issues of the state and law, history, philosophy, economics, reference and other literature in Russian and foreign languages. There are many rare editions (including in Latin) of the XVI - XIX centuries among them.
The Institute's scientific library receives more than 2,700 books, brochures, and dissertations on an annual basis.
The Institute would not carry on its multifaceted scientific activities without a stable information base. The Department of Scientific Information on Legislation accumulates and systematizes federal and foreign legislative acts. Scholars of the Institute have developed unique methods and schemes of regulatory material systematization. In particular, some research have been done to determine the range of Moscow regulations, extract the regulations of a normative nature and include them into repeatedly updated official compilations of statutes Laws of Moscow and Compilation of Applicable Laws of Moscow.
The Institute has a great creative potential. The Government of the Russian Federation, paying much attention to most promising directions of the legal science and taking into account the scientific research volume extension, increased the Institute's personnel capacity more than once. Since 2007, its personnel capacity has been increased to 250 persons.
About 150 doctors and candidates of science work in the Institute. Many employees of the Institute are honoured with the title of honour Honoured Worker of Science of the Russian Federation and Honoured Lawyer of the Russian Federation, other state rewards, Certificate of Honour of the Government of the Russian Federation, departmental rewards, and insignia.
The Institute's employees traditionally become members of supreme legislative and judicial authorities. Among them were V. F. Yakovlev (resigned Chairman of the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation), V. A. Tumanov (resigned Chairman of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation), T. G. Morshchakova (resigned Deputy Chairman of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation),
M. N. Yukov (resigned Deputy Chairman of the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation), O. S. Khokh-ryakova (Judge of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation), G. S. Shapkina (Judge of the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation) and others.
In 1975, for the development of the legal science and training of scientific personnel the Institute was awarded the Badge of Honour, and in 2005, the President of the Russian Federation announced his acknowledgement of the Institute's great contribution into the development of priority directions of the legal science.
The Institute's employees seek to make new scientific achievements, keeping glorious traditions of the past.